# PLANET DATA REFERENCE

## MERCURY

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 0.3302**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 6.083**

Mean Radius** km = 2,440**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 3.7**

Number of Moons** = 0**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 57.8**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 46.0**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 69.8**

Eccentricity** = 0.21**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **0.01°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 4,223**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 87.969**

Discoverer = Unknown

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = 10 ^{-15}**

Atmosphere Composition** = O _{2}, Na, H_{2}**

Average Temperature **°C**** = 167**

## VENUS

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 4.8685**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 92.843**

Mean Radius** km = 6,052**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 8.9**

Number of Moons** = 0**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 108.2**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 107.5**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 108.9**

Eccentricity** = 0.0067**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **177.36°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 2,802**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 224.701**

Discoverer = Unknown

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = 92**

Atmosphere Composition** = CO _{2}, N_{2}**

Average Temperature **°C**** = 464**

## EARTH

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 5.974**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 108.321**

Mean Radius** km = 6,371**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 9.8**

Number of Moons** = 1**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 149.6**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 147.1**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 152.1**

Eccentricity** = 0.017**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **23.45°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 24.0**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 365.256**

Discoverer = Erm…

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = 1**

Atmosphere Composition** = N _{22}**

Average Temperature **°C**** = 15**

# MARS

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 0.6419**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 16.318**

Mean Radius** km = 3,370**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 3.7**

Number of Moons** = 2**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 227.9**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 206.6**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 249.2**

Eccentricity** = 0.094**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **25.19°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 24.7**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 686.980**

Discoverer = Unknown

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = 0.006**

Atmosphere Composition** = CO _{2}, N_{2}**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -63**

## JUPITER

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 1,898.6**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 143,128**

Mean Radius** km = 69,911**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 24.8**

Number of Moons** = 63**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 778.6**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 740.5**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 816.6**

Eccentricity** = 0.049**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **3.13°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 9.9**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 4,332.589**

Discoverer = Unknown

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = >>1000**

Atmosphere Composition** = H _{2}, He**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -108**

## SATURN

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 468.46**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 82,713**

Mean Radius** km = 58,232**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 10.4**

Number of Moons** = 33**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 1,443.5**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 1,352.6**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 1,514.5**

Eccentricity** = 0.057**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **26.73°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 10.7**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 10,759.22**

Discoverer = Unknown

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = >>1000**

Atmosphere Composition** = H _{2}, He**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -139**

## URANUS

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 86.83**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 6,833**

Mean Radius** km = 25,362**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 8.9**

Number of Moons** = 29**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 2,872.5**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 2,741.3**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 3003.6**

Eccentricity** = 0.046**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **97.77°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 17.2**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 30,685.4**

Discoverer = William Herschel

(1781)

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = >>1000**

Atmosphere Composition** = H _{2}, He**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -197**

## NEPTUNE

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 102.43**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 6,254**

Mean Radius** km = 24,624**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 11.2**

Number of Moons** = 13**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 4,495.1**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 4,444.5**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 4,545.7**

Eccentricity** = 0.011**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **28.32°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 16.1**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 60,189**

Discoverer = Johann Galle (1846)

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = >>1000**

Atmosphere Composition** = H _{2}, He**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -201**

## PLUTO

Mass **10 ^{24}kg = 0.0125**

Volume** 10^{10}km^{3}= 0.0125**

Mean Radius** km = 0.715**

Surface gravity (g)** ms ^{-2} = 0.58**

Number of Moons** = 1**

Distance from Sun (semi-major axis)** 10 ^{6}km = 5,869.7**

Min distance from sun (perihelion) **10 ^{6}km = 4,435.0**

Max distance from sun (aphelion)** 10 ^{6}km = 7,304.3**

Eccentricity** = 0.24**

Inclination of rotation to orbit = **122.55°**

Length of “Day”(Rotation period) **hrs = 153.3**

Length of “Year” (Orbital period)** days = 90,465**

Discoverer = Clyde Tombaugh (1930)

Atmosphere Pressure **bar**** = 10 ^{-6}**

Atmosphere Composition** = CH _{4}, N_{2}**

Average Temperature **°C**** = -229**

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